ISO 16140-2:2016 specifies the general principle and the technical protocol for the validation of alternative, mostly proprietary, methods for microbiology in the food chain. Validation studies according to ISO 16140-2:2016 are intended to be performed by organizations involved in method validation.It is applicable to the validation of methods for the analysis (detection or quantification) of microorganisms in- products intended for human consumption,- products intended for animal feeding,- environmental samples in the area of food and feed production, handling, and- samples from the primary production stage.It is in particular applicable to bacteria and fungi. Some clauses of ISO 16140-2:2016 could be applicable to other (micro) organisms or their metabolites on a case-by-case-basis. In the future, guidance for other organisms (e.g. viruses and parasites) will be included in ISO 16140:2016 (all parts).